Maritime Women's Bladder Health Urinary Incontinence








A. Websites:

Additional websites with urinary incontinence information & names of healthcare professionals specializing in continence care:

  1. The Canadian Continence Foundation
  2. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)
  3. Women's Health Matters
  4. American Urogynaecology Society (AUGS)
  5. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
B. Bibliographic References:

These scientific papers, journal articles about urinary incontinence were the basis for the information provided on this website. These articles will supplement the information provided to you on our website.

Relevant Publications of the Editorial Board:

I. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence

    Farrell SA, Allen VM, Baskett TF. Parturition and urinary incontinence in primiparous women. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:350-6.
II. Investigations for the Management of Urinary Incontinence
    Farrell SA. Distinguishing between two common types of urinary incontinence in women. Can J Diagnosis 1994;11:47-56.

    Farrell SA, Bent AE, Cholhan H, Ostergard DR. Urethral closure pressure profiles in the standing position: are they necessary? Int Urogynecol J 1995;6:343-5.

    Farrell SA, Tynski G. The effect of urethral pressure variation on detrusor activity in women. Int Urogynecol J 1996;7:87-93.

    Farrell SA. A triage approach to the investigation and management of urinary incontinence. J SOGC 1998;20(12):1153-58.

    Farrell SA. Commentary on "Pelvic floor contraction strength assessment by digital examination was in good agreement with perineometry. Evidence-based Obstet Gynecol 2001;38-9. Summary of Isherwood PJ, Rane A. Comparative assessment of pelvic floor strength using a perineometer and digital examination. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;1007-11.

    Farrell SA. "Clinical Evaluation of the Female Pelvis". Drutz H, Herschorn S, Diamant N. eds. Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery. London UK, Springer-Verlag. Chapter 8;2002:81-90.

    Farrell SA, Epp A, Flood C, Lajoie F, MacMillan B, Mainprize T, Robert M. Urogynaecology Committee; Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The evaluation of stress incontinence prior to primary surgery. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003; 25(4): 313-4.

III. Non-Surgical Management of Urinary Incontinence & Prolapse

    Bladder Training (Bladder Drill)

    Farrell SA, Fantl JA. "Behavioural Therapy for Detrusor Instability of Idiopathic Origin". In: Urogynaecology and Urodynamics, Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition. Eds: Ostergard DR and Bent AE. William and Wilkins, Baltimore 1991;368 -73.

    Farrell SA. "Behavioural Therapy for Detrusor Instability". In: Urogynaecology and Urodynamics, Theory and Practice. 4th edition. Eds: Ostergard DR and Bent AE. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1996;477-82.

    Pessaries

    Wu V, Farrell SA, Baskett TF, Flowerdew G. A simplified protocol for pessary management. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90:990-4.

    Farrell SA. Practical advice for ring pessary fitting and management. J SOGC 1997;19:625-32.

    Farrell SA. Pessaries for the management of stress urinary incontinence. J SOGC 2001;23:1184-9.

    Farrell SA. "Non-surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse". Ostergard D, Bent A, Cundiff G, Swift S (eds). Ostergard's Urogynecology and pelvic floor dysfunction. 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. Chapter 25; 2002:393-407.

    Models of Continence Care

    Farrell, S.A., Scott, T.A., Farrell, K. (2002). Medical Referral Versus Self- Referral: A Prospective Comparison of Two Health Service Models for Delivery of Urinary Incontinence Care. Presented at the Annual Convention of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Winnipeg, MAN, June.

    Farrell, K. (2002). Novel Approaches to the Investigation and Management of Female Urinary Incontinence: A Self-Referral Continence Clinic. Presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses, Halifax, NS, November.

    Farrell, K.D., Robinson, L.M., & Scott, T.A. (2003). Female urinary incontinence health education on the Internet: Pitfalls and opportunities. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada,25 (7), 594-600.

IV. Surgical Management of Urinary Incontinence & Prolapse
    Farrell SA, Ostergard DR. "Choice of Surgical Procedure for Stress Incontinence". Female Pelvic Floor Disorders, Investigation and Management. Benson JT (ed) New York, Norton Medical Books 1992;232-6.

    Drutz H, Farrell SA, Lemieux MC, Mainprize TC, Wilkie DH. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence following pelvic floor or incontinence surgery. J SOGC 1998;20(8):778-81

    Farrell SA. The application of the concept of "Therapeutic Index" to surgery for stress incontinence. Int Urogynecol J 1998;9:299-302.

    Zilbert A, Farrell SA. Laceration of the external iliac artery: a complication of the TVT procedure. Int Urogynecol J 2001;12:141-3.

    Farrell SA, Dempsey T, Geldenhuys L. Histologic examination of "fascia" used in colporrhaphy. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98: 794-8.

    Farrell SA, Beckerson LA, Epp A, Flood CG, Lajoie F, MacMillan JB, Mainprize TC, Robert M. Subcommittee on Urogynaecology, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003;25(8) 692-8.

Additional References (other sources):

I. General Information About Urinary Incontinence

    Campbell AJ, Reinken J, McCosh L. Incontinence in the elderly: prevalence and prognosis. Age Ageing 1985:14:65-70.

    Abrams P, Blaivas JG, Stanton SL Andersen JT. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function. The International Continence Society Committee on Standardisation of Terminology. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 1988;114:5-19.

    Herzog AR, Fultz NH. Urinary incontinence in the community: prevalence, consequences, management, and beliefs. Topics Geriatr Rehab 1988;3:1-12.

    Grimby A, Milsom I, Molander U, Wiklund I, Edelund P. The influence of urinary incontinence on the quality of life of elderly women. Age Ageing 1993:22:82-9.

    Fonda D, Woodward M, D'Astoli M, Chin WF. Sustained improvement of subjective quality of life in older community-dwelling people after treatment of urinary incontinence. Age Ageing 1995;24:283-6.

    Angus Reid Group. Urinary Incontinence in the Adult Population. Toronto (ON): Angus Reid Group; 1997.

    Klag M. Experiences, perceptions and needs among a large-scale Canadian population experiencing incontinence. Toronto (ON): The Canadian Continence Foundation; 1998.

    Griffiths D. The needs of people suffering from incontinence and the barriers encountered: a review of research and publications related to the Canadian situation. Toronto (ON): The Canadian Continence Foundation; 1998.

II. Clinical Guidelines for Urinary Incontinence Care
    Fantl JA, Newman DK, Colling J, Delancey JOL, et al. Urinary Incontinence in adults: Acute and chronic management (Clinical practice guideline no. 2, 1996 AHCPR Publication no 96-0682. Update). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

    The Canadian Continence Foundation. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Canada. 2003.

    Dougherty MC, Burns PA, Campbell D, Johnson CS, Wyman JF. The Continence for Women Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. AWHONN 2000;Practice Guideline:1-27.

    Farrell SA, Epp A, Flood C, Lajoie F, MacMillan B, Mainprize T, Robert M. Urogynaecology Committee; Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The evaluation of stress incontinence prior to primary surgery. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003; 25(4): 313-4.

III. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence
    Resnick NM, Yalla SV. Management of urinary incontinence in the elderly. N Engl J Med 1985;313:800-5.

    Appel RA, Baum N. Neurogenic bladder in diabetes. Pract Diabetol 1990; 9(4):1-4.

    Creighton CM, Stanton SL. Caffeine: Does it affect your bladder? Br J Urol. 1990;66:613-14.

    Diokno AC, Brock BM, Herzog AR, Bromberg J. Medical correlates of urinary incontinence in the elderly. Urology 1990;36:129-38.

    Burgio KL, Matthews KA, Engel BT. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of urinary incontinence in healthy, middle-aged women. J Urol. 1991;146:1255-59.

    Bump RC, Sugerman HJ, Fantl JA, McClish DK. Obesity and lower urinary tract function in women: Effect of surgically induced weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:392-99.

    Wyman J, Elswick RK Jr, Ory MG, Wilson MS, Fantl JA. Influence of functional, urological, and environmental characteristics on urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older women. Nurs Res 1993;42(5):270-5.

    Bump RC, McClish DM. Cigarette smoking and pure genuine stress incontinence of urine. A comparison of risk factors and determinants between smokers and non-smokers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:579-82.

    Nygaard IE, Thompson FL, Svengalis SL, Albright JP. Urinary incontinence in elite, nulliparous athletes. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:183-87.

    Tomlinson BU, Dougherty MC, Pendergast JF, Boyington AR, Coffman MA, Pickens SM. Dietary caffeine, fluid intake and urinary incontinence in older rural women. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1999;10:22-28.

IV. Investigations for the Management of Urinary Incontinence
    Q-tip Test

    Karram MM, Bhatia NN. The Q-tip test: standardization of the technique and its interpretation in women with urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Jun; 71(6 Pt 1): 807-11.
    PMID: 3368164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Urodynamics

    Kohli N, Karram MM. Urodynamic evaluation for female urinary incontinence.
    Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Sep; 41(3): 672-90. Review.
    PMID: 9742364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Glazener CMA, Lapitan MC. Urodynamic investigations for management of urinary incontinence in adults (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Bladder Diary (Urolog)

    Larsson G, Victor A. The frequency/volume chart in genuine stress incontinent women. Neurology and Urodynamics 1992; 11:23-31.

V. Non-Surgical Management of Urinary Incontinence

    Nygaard I. Prevention of exercise incontinence with mechanical devices. J Reprod Med. 1995;40:89-91.

    Karram MM, Partoll L, Rahe J. Efficacy of nonsurgical therapy for urinary incontinence. J Reprod Med. 1996 Apr; 41(4): 215-9.
    PMID: 8728070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Burgio KL, Locher JL, Goode PS, Hardin JM, McDowell BJ, Dombrowski M, Candib, D. Behavioral vs. drug treatment for urge urinary incontinence in older women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1995-99.

    Miller JM, Ashton-Miller JA, Delancey, JOL. A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:870-74.

    Wyman JF, Fantl JA, McClish DK, Bump RC, & the Continence Program for Women Research Group. Comparative efficacy of behavioral interventions in the management of female urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:999-1007.

    Dougherty MC, Dwyer JW, Pendergast JF, Boyington AR, Tomlinson BU, Coward RT, Duncan RP, Vogel B, Rooks LG. A randomized trial of behavioral management for continence with older rural women. Res Nurs Health. 2002 Feb; 25(1): 3-13.
    PMID: 11807915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Gumley A. A behavioural management for continence intervention reduced urinary incontinence symptoms in older rural women. Evid Based Ment Health 2002;5(3):79.

    Subak LL, Quesenberry CP, Posner SF, Cattolica E, Soghikian K. The effect of behavioral therapy on urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jul; 100(1): 72-8.
    PMID: 12100806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Bladder Training (Bladder Drill)

    Godec CJ. Timed voiding: A useful tool in the treatment of urinary incontinence. Urology 1984;23:97-100.

    Fantl JA, Wyman JF, McClish DK, Harkins SW, Elswick RK, Taylor JR, Hadley EC. Efficacy of bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence.
    JAMA 1991;265:609-13.

    Wyman JF, Fantl JA, McClish DK, Harkins SW, Ubersax JS, Ory MG. Quality of life following bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1997;8:223-39.

    Pelvic Physiotherapy
    (Muscle Training, Biofeedback, Vaginal Cones, Electrical Stimulation)

    Berghmans LCM, Frederiks CMA, deBie RA, Weil EHJ, Smeets LWH, van Waalwijk van Doorn ESC, Janknegt RA. Efficacy of biofeedback, when included with pelvic floor muscle exercise treatment, for genuine stress incontinence.
    Neurourol Urodyn 1996;15:37-52.

    Glavind K, Nohr SB, Walter S. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1996;7:339-43.

    Siegel SW, Richardson DA, Miller KL, Karram MM, Blackwood NB, Sand PK, Staskin DR, Tuttle JP. Pelvic floor electrical stimulation for the treatment of urge and mixed urinary incontinence in women.
    Urology. 1997 Dec; 50(6): 934-40.
    PMID: 9426726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Miller K, Richardson DA, Siegel SW, Karram MM, Blackwood NB, Sand PK.
    Pelvic floor electrical stimulation for genuine stress incontinence: who will benefit and when?
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1998; 9(5): 265-70.
    PMID: 9849758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Bo K, Talseth T, Holme I. Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women. BMJ. 1999 Feb 20; 318(7182): 487-93.
    PMID: 10024253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Hay-Smith EJC, BÝ K, Berghmans LCM, Hendriks HJM, de Bie RA, van Waalwijk van Doorn ESC. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003.
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

VI. Medical Therapy (Medications) for Urinary Incontinence
    Szonyi G, Collas DM, Ding YY, Malone-Lee JG. Oxybutynin with bladder retraining for detrusor instability in elderly people: A randomized controlled trial.
    Age Ageing 1995;24:287-91.

    Andersson KE, Appell R, Cardozo LD, Chapple C, Drutz HP, Finkbeiner AE, Haab F, Vela Navarrete R. The pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence. BJU 1999; 84:923-47.

    Dmochowski RR, Appell RA. Advancements in pharmacologic management of the overactive bladder. Urology. 2000 Dec 4; 56(6 Suppl 1): 41-9. Review.
    PMID: 11114562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Rovner ES, Wein AJ. Once-daily, extended-release formulations of antimuscarinic agents in the treatment of overactive bladder: a review. Eur Urol. 2002 Jan; 41(1): 6-14. Review.
    PMID: 11999467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Moehrer B, Hextall A, Jackson S. Oestrogens for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

VII. Surgical Management of Urinary Incontinence
    Karram MM, Bhatia NN. Transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension procedures for stress urinary incontinence: a comprehensive review. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 May; 73(5 Pt 2): 906-14. Review.
    PMID: 2649835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Black NA, Downs SH. The effectiveness of surgery for stress incontinence in women: a systematic review. Br J Urol. 1996 Oct; 78(4): 497-510.
    PMID: 8944504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Hutchings A, Griffiths J, Black NA. Surgery for stress incontinence: factors associated with a successful outcome. Br J Urol. 1998 Nov; 82(5): 634-41.
    PMID: 9839576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Kuczyk MA, Klein S, Grunewald V, Machtens S, Denil J, Hofner K, Wagner T, Jonas U. A questionnaire-based outcome analysis of the Stamey bladder neck suspension procedure for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence: the Hannover experience. Br J Urol. 1998 Aug; 82(2): 174-80.
    PMID: 9722750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Stanton SL. (ed). Tension-Free Vaginal Tape - A Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedure for Treatment of Female Urinary Incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2001; 12(Suppl 2): S1-29.

    Bezerra CA, Bruschini H, Cody DJ. Suburethral sling operations for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Glazener CMA, Cooper K. Anterior vaginal repair for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Glazener CMA, Cooper K. Bladder neck needle suspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Karram MM, Segal JL, Vassallo BJ, Kleeman SD. Complications and untoward effects of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May; 101(5 Pt 1): 929-32.
    PMID: 12738152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Lapitan MC, Cody DJ, Grant AM. Open retropubic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Moehrer B, Ellis G, Carey M, Wilson PD. Laparoscopic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Glazener CMA, Cooper K. Bladder neck needle suspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Karram MM, Segal JL, Vassallo BJ, Kleeman SD. Complications and untoward effects of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May; 101(5 Pt 1): 929-32.
    PMID: 12738152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Lapitan MC, Cody DJ, Grant AM. Open retropubic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Moehrer B, Ellis G, Carey M, Wilson PD. Laparoscopic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


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